Crossing Borders/Breaking Boundaries
The Arts of India, 1556-1658
June 23 - July 1, 2008
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Unit of Study:      Art and Math

Lesson Title:       Master of the Mint

Discipline:           Art

Grade Level:       Kindergarten

Author:                 Kim Carioto-Krugle

County:                 Frederick County, MD

Time Period:        4 class periods, 40 minutes each


In this lesson, the students will create a large relief sculpture of a coin using lines, shapes, and a pattern for the design. The concept of relief/3D sculpture will be emphasized. The lesson integrates with the K math curriculum by covering the recognition and manipulation of money and pattern.


The students could already be familiar with recognizing and labeling pennies, nickels, and dimes, but this could be their first introduction. This could also be their first introduction to pattern or the lesson can be reinforcement. The only prior knowledge for the art objectives would be a familiarity with the art room routine and some basic materials. I would not do this lesson in the first quarter of the school year, but would wait until students know rules, procedures, and safety. They should already know proper use of some basic material.

The teacher needs to be familiar with coins from a variety of countries in order to discuss the relief images. Focus is on the coins of the Mughal Rulers of India.


  • pencil
  • 9x12 white paper
  • heavy weight paper plates
  • 8” circle tracer
  • black marker
  • Fast Mache (instant paper mache)
  • scissors
  • glue
  • gold spray paint
  • 9x12 gold colored paper
  • crayons
  • baggies with pennies, nickels, and dimes


  • handouts that show images of coins from other countries and cultures
  • flash cards with each of the 3 US coins and their label; penny, nickel, and dime

Standards/Learner Outcomes:

Fine Arts Standards

AR.K00.10 Explore natural and human-made visual forms (1.1)*
AR.K00.10.02     Discover form in everyday objects
AR.K00.30          Discover the ways art is used in the community (2.1b)*
AR.K00.40          Explore the role of the visual arts in developing and enhancing the skills required for study in other content areas (2.4)*
AR.K00.40.01     Relate appropriate concepts from other content   areas such as language arts, math, science, and social studies (2.4a, 2.4b)*
AR.K00.45          Participate in art activities such as drawing, painting, molding, building, cutting, and pasting (3.1a)*

AR.K00.20          Discuss the “language” of visual form (1.1a, 1.2b, 1.3a, 3.2b, 4.1a)*
AR.K00.20.01     Discuss and begin using the following art elements and principles throughout the year:
AR.K00.20.01a   ART ELEMENTS: color, line, shape, texture
 AR.K00.20.01.b ART PRINCIPLES: pattern         

Content Standards

Standard6.0 Knowledge of Number Relationships and Computation/ Arithmetic
Indicator 3. Recognize and use money
Standard1.0 Knowledge of Algebra, Patterns, and Functions
Indicator 2. Identify, copy, describe, create, and extend non-numeric  pattern


Fine Arts Objectives

  • Students will construct a relief sculpture on a circle base that uses a variety of lines and shapes and at least one pattern.
  • Students will draw at least 3 different lines and 3 different shapes, and one pattern on a practice worksheet.

 Content Objectives

  • Students will be able to identify and name the value of pennies, nickels, and dimes.
  • Students will be able to choose the coin named from a given set of mixed coins.
  • Students will be able to represent and analyze repeating patterns using no more then 3 objects in the core of the pattern.
  • Students will be able to sort a collection of objects according to a rule.


  • relief          
  • 3D/ 3 Dimensional      
  • sculpture
  • shape        
  • texture       
  • pattern       
  • line
  • money       
  • penny        
  • dime          
  • nickel        
  • India          
  • Mughal



Show students finished product; large gold coin with a relief design. Pass out coins and pictures of coins from a variety of countries, including coins from the Mughal period in India. Ask students to share what they see and feel on the coins.  Discuss the term “Mint” as a noun and verb. Explain how each emperor during the Mughal dynasties would have a person in charge of the Mint. Have students discuss the jobs that would be a part of the minting process. 
Prompt: If they were emperor, how would they like their coins to be designed? What would they want on the coins?

Scope & Sequence:

Labeling Coins

Teacher Directed

  • Introduce each Am. coin and verbally name it
  • Have a coin mounted on a card with the name written below the coin. Call on students to name the coin as it is shown.

Guided Practice

  • Give each student a coin. Call name of coin and have students holding that particular coin stand.
  • Sort students into groups according to the coin they are holding.

Independent Practice

  • Give students a baggie of coins to take to their seat; call out the name of a coin and have them pick the coin that is named.

Sorting Coins

Teacher Directed

  • On the carpet with students gathered around, manipulate coins collected in a baggie; sort by size, color, and/or image.

Guided Practice

  • Have students help to sort and suggest rules

Independent Practice

  • Students use their own baggie of coins at their seats and sort them according to announced rules


Teacher directed

  • Back on the carpet, show students how to create a pattern with the coins: example, penny, nickel, dime, penny, nickel, dime.

Guided Practice

  • Have students suggest patterns and create them as the class watches.

Independent Practice

  • Return to seats to create a pattern.

Designing Coins

Teacher Directed

  • Using a handout with different size circles on it, demonstrate to students how to draw images in order to design their own coins

Guided Practice

  • Have students suggest ideas to draw on coins. Look at coins from different countries. Talk about images that would be meaningful to each student; a pet, their home, a symbol, something from nature.

Independent Practice

  • Have students work on their own handout and design coins

Clean up. In order to line up, show each student a US coin and have him/her label it.



Layout student worksheets with their coin designs. Have each  student share one idea they drew for an image on a coin. Focus on the coins from the Mughal period: “See, Think, Wonder” activity. Point out how the designs are lines, shapes and patterns. Some of the shapes represent written words in the Mughal language.

Scope and Sequence:

Preparing design for sculpture process

Teacher Directed

  • Use the back of the practice paper from Day1. Draw at least 3 kinds of lines, 3 shapes, and one pattern. Students may draw more

Guided Practice

  • When demonstrating the lines and shapes and pattern, ask students for ideas.

Independent Practice

  • At their seats, students practice their own lines, shapes, and pattern on the back of their circle handout paper.

Design for Relief Sculpture

Teacher Directed

  • Students return to carpet. Demonstrate how to create a final design on 9x12" paper; use an 8"circle tracer. Use the practice paper as a reference. When the design is done, draw it again on to the back of a heavy weight paper plate.

Guided Practice

  • Repeat demonstration asking students for lines, shapes, and pattern ideas. Call on students, one at a time, to come up and draw on your second circle demonstration and help you. Have students pick an image from a Mughal coin to put on the circle.

Independent Practice

  • Give students their paper and circle tracer and send them to their seats to draw their final designs. Have handouts of coins from other countries on the tables. When they are ready, give them a paper plate and let them draw the circle design onto the plate (bottom side). Names go on the back of the plate (top side).


          To line up students after clean-up, create patterns: boy/girl/boy/girl for example. Or ask them to find shapes, lines, and patterns around the room.



Layout paper plates with designs so class can view the product so far. Compare the product at the current stage with the finished product displayed on the lesson board. Prompt: How is the project different from the final product? Give each student a coin; have them verbally label the coin as they receive it. What do they feel? Students should feel that the coin is not flat. Explain that this is a relief sculpture. It is raised so it is 3D, 3 Dimensional. The relief creates a texture you can feel.

Scope and Sequence:

Relief Sculpture Construction

  • Teacher Directed
  • Demonstrate the use of paper mache to build up the lines, shapes, and pattern on the paper plate. Students may also create a pattern around the edge of the plate.
  • Guided Practice
  • Have students help you review proper art room procedures for using this medium: do not touch anyone or anyone’s art work, do not get out of your seat until you are called to bring your project to the dry area, do not wash hands until it is your turn and you are called.
  • Independent Practice
  • Students work at their tables building a relief sculpture of their design, and possibly a pattern around the edge of the plate. Each student has a tray with their paper plate. Place a handful of mache on the tray.


After clean-up, have students find relief type textures around the room.



When paper mache is dry on the relief sculptures, teacher will spray paint the sculptures a shiny, metallic gold in preparation for Day 4. Spray front and back of sculptures. Make sure names are written on back side along the edge.


Display gold sprayed sculptures of coins on the carpet for the class to share, observe, critique.

Scope and Sequence:

Teacher Directed

  • Demonstrate how to create a drawing on a piece 9x12" gold paper, using the 8" circle tracer, that will be the image for the back of the student’s coin. Cut out the circle. Draw with a pencil. Outline with black marker. (Students may want to add crayon color.)

Guided Practice

  • Show students their practice drawings from Day1 and remind them that they can use an image that they already drew. The image does not have to be just lines, shapes, and patterns. They will not paper mache this side, so they can draw animals, people, buildings, plants, or any idea they may like.

Independent Practice

  • Students work at their tables on the image for the back of their coin sculptures.


Day 4 will incorporate assessment procedures.

  • Pattern

Students will be given a baggie of coins and will be asked to create a pattern at their table. They may use as many of the coins as they want. They will leave the coin pattern in place so I can check understanding while they are working on the circle drawing for the back of their sculpture.

  • Coin Labels

While students are working independently, I will have them come up to the carpet alone to select coins from a pile according to the correct label.
4 could recognize all 3 coins by name
3 could recognize 2 coins by name
2 could recognize 1 coin by name
1 could not recognize any coins by name

  • Design Worksheet

4 Student was able to draw 3 line types, 3 different shapes, and 1 pattern.
3 Student was able to draw at least 2 line types, 2 different shapes, and 1 pattern
2 Student was able to draw at least 2 line types and 2 different shapes, but no pattern.
1 Student did not draw any controlled lines or shapes or a pattern.

  • Relief Coin Sculpture

          4 Student was able to build a relief image that shows all the lines, shapes, and pattern from the original design.
          3 Student was able to build a relief image that shows most of the lines, shapes and pattern from the original design.
          2 Student was able to build a relief sculpture that shows some of the lines, shapes, and pattern from the original design.
          1 Student built a relief sculpture that does not follow the lines, shapes, or pattern from the original design.


  • Students will glue their drawing to the back side (or eating surface) of the paper plate.
  • A gallery walk would be appropriate for students to observe each other’s work. Students could each take turns showing their coins so both sides can be shared.
  • Do a display in the school hallway of all the coins.


  • Further connections can be made between Mughal coinage and K standards for money equivalence. Connections can be developed to reinforce Standards in K Economics/Social Studies.
  • Art exploration could involve a lesson that has students make paper coins with stamped images. This would lend itself to objectives that teach buying/selling and amounts/counting
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Sponsored by
the Center for Renaissance & Baroque Studies
and the Maryland State Department of Education